Steel round rods are a type of steel shape widely used in construction, specialised machine-building and other industries. They are one of the most popular metal profiles in global industry.

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Application steel round rods

Steel round rods are used in construction to manufacture various kinds of steel structures, handrails and guards, as well to make reinforced concrete goods, where they are used as reinforcing elements. The machine-building industry uses steel rounds as a raw material to manufacture rolls, bushes, axles, pinions, elements of equipment and vehicles, metalware, etc. Steel rounds with large cross-sections are used as a semi-finished product to make tubular products.

Properties and classification

Steel round rods are supplied according to the requirements of various international, national and industry regulations, and customers' specifications. Steel rounds can be sold as hot-rolled, heat-treated, normalised, annealed, quenched and tempered, etc. The most popular standards and steel grades for steel rounds are shown in the table below.


Group of standards

Standard for technical specification

Steel grades in high demand

As-received condition of steel products

European standards

EN 10025-2,

DSTU EN 10025-2

S235JR, S235J0, S235J2, S275JR, S275J0, S275J2, S355JR, S355J0, S355J2, S355K2

Hot-rolled, normalised rolling, thermomechanical rolling

EN 10025-3,

DSTU EN 10025-3

S275N, S275NL, S355N, S355NL, S420N, S420NL, S460N, S460NL

Normalised rolling, normalised

EN 10025-4,

DSTU EN 10025-4

S355M, S355ML, S420M, S420ML, S460M, S460ML

Thermomechanical rolling

EN 10025-5,

DSTU EN 10025-5

S235J0W, S235J2W, S355J0WP, S355J2WP, S355J0W, S355J2W, S355K2W

Hot-rolled, normalised rolling

EN 10025-6,

DSTU EN 10025-6

S460Q, S460QL, S460QL1, S500Q, S500QL, S500QL1, S550Q, S550QL, S550QL1, S620Q, S620QL, S620QL1, S690Q, S690QL, S690QL1, S890Q, S890QL, S960Q, S960QL

Quenched and tempered

EN ISO 683-1,

EN 10083-2,

DSTU EN 10083-2

С35, С40, С45, С55, С60, С45Е, С45R, C50E, C50R, C55, C55E, C55R, C60E, C60R, 28Mn6, С22Е, С22R, C35, C35E, C35R, C40E, C40R

Hot-rolled, soft annealing, normalised, quenched and tempered

EN ISO 683-2

EN 10083-3,

DSTU EN 10083-3

38Cr2, 46Cr2, 34Cr4, 34CrS4, 37Cr4, 41Cr4, 41CrS4, 25CrMo4, 25CrMoS4, 34CrMoS4, 42CrMo4, 42CrMoS4, 50CrMo4, 34NiMo6, 30CrNiMo8, 35NiCr6, 36NiCrMo16, 39NiCrMo3, 30NiCrMo16-6, 51CrV4, 20MnB5, 30mnB5, 38MnB5, 27MnCrB5-2, 33MnCrB5-2, 39MnCrB6-2

Hot-rolled, soft annealing, normalised, quenched and tempered

EN ISO 683-3

EN 10084-3

C10E, C10R, C15E, C15R, C16E, C16R28Cr4, 28CrS4, 20MnCr5, 20MnCrS5, 22CrMoS3-5, 20MoCr3, 20MoCrS3, 20MoCr4, 20MoCrS4, 16NiCr4, 16NiCrS4, 18NiCr5-4, 17CrNi6-6, 15NiCr13, 17NiCrMo6-4, 17NiCrMoS6-4, 20NiCrMoS6-4, 18CrNiMo7-6, 14NiCrMo13-4, 20NiCrMo13-4, 17Cr3, 17CrS3, 16MnCr5, 16MnCrS5, 16MnCrB5, 18CrMo4, 18CrMoS4, 10NiCr5-4, 20NiCrMo2-2, 20NiCrMoS2-2

Hot-rolled, soft annealing, normalised, normalised, etc

Ukraine and CIS standards

DSTU 4484

GOST 535

St0, St1kp, St1ps, St1sp, St2kp, St2ps, St2sp, St3kp, St3ps, St3sp, St3Gps, St3Gsp, St4kp, St4ps, St4sp, St5ps, St5sp, St5Gps, St6ps, St6sp.

Hot-rolled (heat treatment is possible)

DSTU 7809

GOST 1050

05kp, 08kp, 08ps, 10kp, 10ps, 11kp, 15kp, 15ps, 18kp, 20kp, 20ps, 08, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 58 (55pp), 60

Hot-rolled, annealed, high-tempered, normalised, etc.

DSTU 8429

GOST 14959

65, 70, 75, 80,85, 60G, 65G, 70G, 55S2, 55S2А, 60S2, 60S2А,70S3А, 60S2G, 50ХG, 50ХGА, 55ХGR, 50ХFА, 55S2GF, 60S2ХА, 60S2ХFА, 65C2VА, 60S2N2А, 70S2ХА

Hot-rolled, annealed, high-tempered

DSTU 7806

GOST 4543

30G2, 35G2, 40G2, 45G2, 50G2, 20ХGR, 20ХNR, 20ХGNR, 27ХTR, 18Х2N4МА, 38ХМ, 30Х2МА, 38Х2N2МА, 40Х2N2МА, 38ХN3МА, 18Х2N4МА, 25Х2N4МА, 30ХN2МФА, 38ХV, 30ХN2VА, 38Х2N2VА, 40Х2N2VА, 38ХN3VА, 18Х2N4VА, 25Х2N4VА, 30ХN2VFА, 15Х, 20Х, 30Х, 35Х, 40Х, 45Х, 40ХN, 15ХF, 30ХМА, etc.

Hot-rolled, annealed, high-tempered, normalised, normalised and tempered

DSTU 8541

GOST 19281

St3sp, 09G2S, 09G2D, 12GS, 16GS, 14ХGS, 17G1S, 09G2, 10G2S1, 14G2, 15GF, 15ХSND, 10ХNDP, 10G2B, 15G2SF, 15GF, 15GFD, 15G2SFD, 14G2АF, 14G2АFD, 16G2АFD, 18G2АFD, 18G2АF

Hot-rolled, normalised, accelerated cooling, etc

Production of steel round rods

One method for producing steel rounds is hot-rolling. Depending on the cross-section of steel rounds, light, medium or heavy-section hot-rolling mills are used to gradually change the shape of the input material.

A separate group is made up of rounds with large cross-sections (diameters of 100 mm and more) and rounds that are used as feedstock to make seamless pipes and steel sections, respectively. Such rounds are produced by casting on continuous casting machines (CCM) or hot-rolling ingots on blooming mills.

Steel rounds with small cross-sections are produced by cold-rolling or drawing.

If certain properties cannot be achieved during the rolling process, steel rounds can be subject to heat treatment.

  • Annealing is a process during which metal is heated to above the temperature of phase transformation, held at this temperature and slowly cooled down together with the furnace. Annealing can be partial, complete, low-temperature, diffusion or re-crystallisation performed within different temperature ranges.

  • Normalising is a type of complete annealing, where rolled steel is heated, soaked and then cooled in the air. This helps steel to acquire greater strength than through annealing.

  • Quenching and tempering is a heat treatment process, which includes heating steel to a specified temperature, holding it there, then cooling it suddenly in different media – like water, oil or polymers – at a speed above the critical. After quenching, tempering is usually conducted to relieve internal stress and help the material to gain the required properties and structure.


Purchase steel round rods

METINVEST offers round-shaped steel in rods made from carbon and low-alloy steel grades with a large range of sizes applicable for construction and machine building. Steel round rods can be purchased through the global sales network of 38 sales offices in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, as well as 16 metal service centres in Ukraine, and authorized dealers.

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